Last Updated: April 28, 2019

Definition - What does Germination mean?

Germination is the budding of a seed after it has been planted in soil and remained dormant for a certain period of time. For plants and fruits that reproduce through seeds and pollen, the seeds eventually grow into young plants through the process of seed germination. When seeds are planted, they remain inactive until conditions are suitable for germination.

For germination to occur various conditions must be met such as the proper amounts of water, oxygen, temperature, and light. When these conditions are met, the seed begins to enlarge as it takes in water and oxygen. The seed's coat breaks open and a root or radicle emerges from the seed, which is followed by a plant shoot. This initial stage of a plant’s development is germination.

MaximumYield explains Germination

Germination is a form of propagation that occurs in most plants. The process can be initiated by the absorption of water and oxygen, coupled with the seed's surrounding temperature, light sensitivity and intensity, etc.

Before germination occurs, the seed does not have the required nutrients for plant growth. When the seed receives the nutrients and water required, then enzymes inside the seed are activated and the process of growth begins.

First, a root grows from the seed, which allows the plant to have access to more water. Next, shoots or plumules (above ground) begin to grow, including the stem and leaves that harness the sun’s energy for more development.

There are several factors that can affect the germination process. Water is vital to germination because the seed must undergo imbibition to stimulate root growth. However, too much water can be a harmful because oxygen may not reach the growing seed.

Additionally, different seeds require different temperatures for optimum growth. Some only grow in cold temperatures while others require high temperatures.

Light intensity also affects seed germination. Upon reaching the surface, plants undergo a light-dependent transformation called photomorphogenesis.

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