Lynette Morgan

Dr. Lynette Morgan holds a B. Hort. Tech. degree and a PhD in hydroponic greenhouse production from Massey University, New Zealand. Lynette is a partner with Suntec International Hydroponic Consultants and has authored several hydroponic technical books. Visit suntec.co.nz for more information.

Articles by Lynette Morgan


Peas, Beans, and Peanuts: How to Grow Legumes Hydroponically Peas, Beans, and Peanuts: How to Grow Legumes Hydroponically Peas, Beans, and Peanuts: How to Grow Legumes Hydroponically Peas, Beans, and Peanuts: How to Grow Legumes Hydroponically


While dried lentils are cheap enough to buy at the grocery store, fresh legumes have a place in your hydroponic garden

Tips for Growing Spinach, Endive, and Chard Using Hydroponics Tips for Growing Spinach, Endive, and Chard Using Hydroponics Tips for Growing Spinach, Endive, and Chard Using Hydroponics Tips for Growing Spinach, Endive, and Chard Using Hydroponics


Spinach, endive, and chard all have good levels of some well-researched health promoting compounds and are well worth the investment in...

How to Grow 4 Types of Berries Hydroponically How to Grow 4 Types of Berries Hydroponically How to Grow 4 Types of Berries Hydroponically How to Grow 4 Types of Berries Hydroponically


While hydroponic strawberries are not an uncommon crop and are relatively easy to grow, hydroponic blueberries, cranberries, and...

How to Boost the Calcium Levels in Your Hydroponic System How to Boost the Calcium Levels in Your Hydroponic System How to Boost the Calcium Levels in Your Hydroponic System How to Boost the Calcium Levels in Your Hydroponic System


Ah, calcium complexities. Improving calcium nutrition within the plant is not merely a simple case of dosing up with increasingly higher...

Seed Varieties and Cultivator Genetics: Know Your Origins! Seed Varieties and Cultivator Genetics: Know Your Origins! Seed Varieties and Cultivator Genetics: Know Your Origins! Seed Varieties and Cultivator Genetics: Know Your Origins!


When it comes to selecting and testing the genetics of seeds, it’s important to do your homework

The Benefits and Drawbacks of Plant Analysis The Benefits and Drawbacks of Plant Analysis The Benefits and Drawbacks of Plant Analysis The Benefits and Drawbacks of Plant Analysis


From helping solve nutrient issues to performing a vital role in crop research, here are the benefits and drawbacks of plant analysis

The Convenience of Hydroponic Nutrient Application Systems The Convenience of Hydroponic Nutrient Application Systems The Convenience of Hydroponic Nutrient Application Systems The Convenience of Hydroponic Nutrient Application Systems


The application of a balanced nutrient solution to plant roots is a basic principle of hydroponic growing. Making this irrigation as...

Is Biofilm in a Hydroponic System Bad? Is Biofilm in a Hydroponic System Bad? Is Biofilm in a Hydroponic System Bad? Is Biofilm in a Hydroponic System Bad?


Biofilms are often poorly understood by hydroponic gardeners. Here's why

The Birds and the Bees of Hydroponics: How to Pollinate Plants The Birds and the Bees of Hydroponics: How to Pollinate Plants The Birds and the Bees of Hydroponics: How to Pollinate Plants The Birds and the Bees of Hydroponics: How to Pollinate Plants


Pollination and the resulting fruit set are vital processes for many common hydroponic crops, and an indoor garden can pose challenges to...

Hydroponic Ginger & Turmeric Production Hydroponic Ginger & Turmeric Production Hydroponic Ginger & Turmeric Production Hydroponic Ginger & Turmeric Production


?Bored with growing tomatoes, peppers, and lettuce? Try growing spicy

Cucumber Conundrums Cucumber Conundrums Cucumber Conundrums Cucumber Conundrums


For a fast-growing, high-yielding crop, you can’t go wrong with hydroponic cucumbers. These slender, green salad essentials produce a...

Big Blooms: How to Grow Exhibition-sized Flowers Big Blooms: How to Grow Exhibition-sized Flowers Big Blooms: How to Grow Exhibition-sized Flowers Big Blooms: How to Grow Exhibition-sized Flowers


Exhibition-sized flower blooms of many species can have a real wow factor, whether they are on display at a local floral show or tucked...

You Want Wet Plants, Not Soaked Plants You Want Wet Plants, Not Soaked Plants You Want Wet Plants, Not Soaked Plants You Want Wet Plants, Not Soaked Plants


Using a jug to measure the volume of nutrient solution from each dripper in hydroponic systems is important for irrigation. Growth...

Cloning for the Commons Cloning for the Commons Cloning for the Commons Cloning for the Commons


Cloning is a satisfying, rapid and economic way to multiply favorite plants, producing exact copies of the parent with the same desirable...

Pass the Pruners: How to Control Plant Growth Pass the Pruners: How to Control Plant Growth Pass the Pruners: How to Control Plant Growth Pass the Pruners: How to Control Plant Growth


Ever since plants were first cultivated for food or ornamental value, growers have been snipping, shaping, trimming and tying to achieve...

How to Grow Basil and Cilantro Using Hydroponics How to Grow Basil and Cilantro Using Hydroponics How to Grow Basil and Cilantro Using Hydroponics How to Grow Basil and Cilantro Using Hydroponics


Growing basil and cilantro outdoors is easy, but growing these herbs indoors presents challenges. Discover a few tips to keeping the flavor...

Substrate Selection & Moisture Management: What You NEED to Know Substrate Selection & Moisture Management: What You NEED to Know Substrate Selection & Moisture Management: What You NEED to Know Substrate Selection & Moisture Management: What You NEED to Know


Here’s a closer look at some best watering practices in the hydroponic garden, based on what substrate you’ve chosen

Top 10 Troubles in the Beginner’s Growroom Top 10 Troubles in the Beginner’s Growroom Top 10 Troubles in the Beginner’s Growroom Top 10 Troubles in the Beginner’s Growroom


Many of the following 10 common mistakes in the growroom can be prevented with a little diligence during the initial stages of plant growth

Hydroponic Illumination & the Daily Light Integral Hydroponic Illumination & the Daily Light Integral Hydroponic Illumination & the Daily Light Integral Hydroponic Illumination & the Daily Light Integral


Working out your garden’s daily light integral, or the total amount of light your plants receive during a 24-hour period, is an...

Dealing with Temperature Extremes in Indoor Gardens Dealing with Temperature Extremes in Indoor Gardens Dealing with Temperature Extremes in Indoor Gardens Dealing with Temperature Extremes in Indoor Gardens


Like humans, plants have little tolerance for freezing-cold or sweltering-hot conditions. And because most indoor gardens need some fresh...

On the Dawn of a Grow Light Revolution: Understanding How Plants Use Different Light Wavelengths On the Dawn of a Grow Light Revolution: Understanding How Plants Use Different Light Wavelengths On the Dawn of a Grow Light Revolution: Understanding How Plants Use Different Light Wavelengths On the Dawn of a Grow Light Revolution: Understanding How Plants Use Different Light Wavelengths


We’ve known for a long time that plants see light differently than humans do, and scientists continue to examine how plants respond to...

Powering Photosynthesis: How to Maximize Light Usage in Hydroponic Crops Powering Photosynthesis: How to Maximize Light Usage in Hydroponic Crops Powering Photosynthesis: How to Maximize Light Usage in Hydroponic Crops Powering Photosynthesis: How to Maximize Light Usage in Hydroponic Crops


To achieve maximum yields, growers need to ensure they are providing the right amount and type of light and optimal environmental...

Maintaining Healthy Hydroponic Root Systems Maintaining Healthy Hydroponic Root Systems Maintaining Healthy Hydroponic Root Systems Maintaining Healthy Hydroponic Root Systems


While root growth and health may go largely unobserved by many indoor gardeners, well-functioning root systems are vital to plant...

Balancing Growth in the Garden Balancing Growth in the Garden Balancing Growth in the Garden Balancing Growth in the Garden


In hydroponic systems, it’s not uncommon to see extremely lush vegetative growth at the expense of fruit yields, or plants that take...

Hydroponic Hygiene Hydroponic Hygiene Hydroponic Hygiene Hydroponic Hygiene


The “kill everything” approach to sterilizing a hydroponic system during a massive cleanout is an outdated idea. After all, you don’t want...

The War on Whiteflies The War on Whiteflies The War on Whiteflies The War on Whiteflies


Whiteflies are one of the most persistent and damaging pests to infiltrate indoor gardens and greenhouses. Luckily, Dr. Lynette Morgan has...

Hydro For Health: Understanding Bioactive Compounds Hydro For Health: Understanding Bioactive Compounds Hydro For Health: Understanding Bioactive Compounds Hydro For Health: Understanding Bioactive Compounds


We all know fresh fruit and veggies are highly nutritious, but some pack a bigger punch when it comes to their health-giving, bioactive...

Recipes for Success: Plant Diet Basics and Formulation Fundamentals Recipes for Success: Plant Diet Basics and Formulation Fundamentals Recipes for Success: Plant Diet Basics and Formulation Fundamentals Recipes for Success: Plant Diet Basics and Formulation Fundamentals


Experimenting with various nutrients and boosters is not just for commercial growers—thanks to the wide range of products available today,...

How to Grow Aquatic Crops Hydroponically How to Grow Aquatic Crops Hydroponically How to Grow Aquatic Crops Hydroponically How to Grow Aquatic Crops Hydroponically


Aquatic plants are easy to grow in modified hydroponic systems and provide both great indoor displays and exotic food crops to tempt the...

Parasitic Pathogens: Infectious Diseases in Hydroponics Parasitic Pathogens: Infectious Diseases in Hydroponics Parasitic Pathogens: Infectious Diseases in Hydroponics Parasitic Pathogens: Infectious Diseases in Hydroponics


Problems with parasitic pathogens in your indoor garden? You’re not alone. Unfortunately, parasitic or infectious diseases are not an...

The How-To of Organic Hydroponics The How-To of Organic Hydroponics The How-To of Organic Hydroponics The How-To of Organic Hydroponics


Growing organically means different things to different growers, but there are some basic principles at play when it comes to applying the...

Delectable Delights: Growing Hydroponic Melons & Eggplants Delectable Delights: Growing Hydroponic Melons & Eggplants Delectable Delights: Growing Hydroponic Melons & Eggplants Delectable Delights: Growing Hydroponic Melons & Eggplants


Fresh, sweet, vine-ripened melons, exotic eggplant varieties and the lesser-known, fragrant pepinos are just some of the culinary delights...

Revealing Root Exudates Revealing Root Exudates Revealing Root Exudates Revealing Root Exudates


While growers often focus on the visible portion of their plants—the stems, leaves, flowers and fruit—there’s a whole world of things going...

Control Yourself: Understanding the Basics of Indoor Climate Control Control Yourself: Understanding the Basics of Indoor Climate Control Control Yourself: Understanding the Basics of Indoor Climate Control Control Yourself: Understanding the Basics of Indoor Climate Control


While that may seem relatively straightforward, climate control within a hydroponic garden is a little more complex than simply providing...

Perfecting Propagation Perfecting Propagation Perfecting Propagation Perfecting Propagation


Producing clones from cuttings in hydroponics is a great way to yield new, healthy planting stock genetically identical to your carefully...

Tips for Growing Alliums in Your Next Garden Tips for Growing Alliums in Your Next Garden Tips for Growing Alliums in Your Next Garden Tips for Growing Alliums in Your Next Garden


Garlic, onions, shallots, scallions and chives are all a part of the allium family. While many types thrive outdoors, others are...

What’s the Problem? Hydroponic Troubleshooting What’s the Problem? Hydroponic Troubleshooting What’s the Problem? Hydroponic Troubleshooting What’s the Problem? Hydroponic Troubleshooting


Many of the problems we encounter in a hydroponic garden are fairly easy to identify. But sometimes the problem plaguing your plants isn’t...

Cultivating Cucumbers Cultivating Cucumbers Cultivating Cucumbers Cultivating Cucumbers


Cucumbers thrive in hydroponics and are one of the highest yielding plants commonly grown in greenhouses

Perfecting the pH of Your Hydroponic Nutrient Solution Perfecting the pH of Your Hydroponic Nutrient Solution Perfecting the pH of Your Hydroponic Nutrient Solution Perfecting the pH of Your Hydroponic Nutrient Solution


The pH levels in small hydroponic systems can often be overlooked if a grower is focusing more on monitoring a solution’s EC or TDS,...

Something Old, Something New: New Crops for Hydroponics Something Old, Something New: New Crops for Hydroponics Something Old, Something New: New Crops for Hydroponics Something Old, Something New: New Crops for Hydroponics


Plant breeders are continually coming up with new cultivars, but some of the most interesting new prospects for hydroponics are actually...

The Micro Revolution: Growing Hydroponic Microgreens The Micro Revolution: Growing Hydroponic Microgreens The Micro Revolution: Growing Hydroponic Microgreens The Micro Revolution: Growing Hydroponic Microgreens


With just days between seed germination and harvest for many varieties and ideal for small spaces, microgreens are increasing in popularity...

Algae Growth in Your Hydroponic System: Friend or Foe? Algae Growth in Your Hydroponic System: Friend or Foe? Algae Growth in Your Hydroponic System: Friend or Foe? Algae Growth in Your Hydroponic System: Friend or Foe?


Algae, a green slimy plague that can rapidly overrun an unprotected hydroponic system, is a constant battle many growers face in keeping...

Spear a Thought for Asparagus Spear a Thought for Asparagus Spear a Thought for Asparagus Spear a Thought for Asparagus


While asparagus is often shipped long distances to provide a year-round supply of this delicacy, nothing beats locally harvested spears -...

A Delicacy From the Dark: Hydroponic Forcing of Witloof A Delicacy From the Dark: Hydroponic Forcing of Witloof A Delicacy From the Dark: Hydroponic Forcing of Witloof A Delicacy From the Dark: Hydroponic Forcing of Witloof


Belgian endive, also known as witloof, is unlike any other vegetable grown hydroponically and its unique value and sophisticated flavor are...

Aromatic Adventures: Growing Exotic Herbs and Spices Hydroponically Aromatic Adventures: Growing Exotic Herbs and Spices Hydroponically Aromatic Adventures: Growing Exotic Herbs and Spices Hydroponically Aromatic Adventures: Growing Exotic Herbs and Spices Hydroponically


Many people value the distinctive flavors that herbs and spices from faraway places add to a dish and the good news is many of these...

Try Growing Your Own Wasabi Try Growing Your Own Wasabi Try Growing Your Own Wasabi Try Growing Your Own Wasabi


Wasabi, an Asian plant with a strong flavor has gained popularity in recent years. Turns out, the semi-aquatic plant is well suited to...

Surfactant Solutions Surfactant Solutions Surfactant Solutions Surfactant Solutions


There are additives lurking in most gardening sprays, but not to worry, that's a good

The Restricted Section: Root Restriction in Hydroponics The Restricted Section: Root Restriction in Hydroponics The Restricted Section: Root Restriction in Hydroponics The Restricted Section: Root Restriction in Hydroponics


Most hydroponic crops only require a small root zone volume. However, as Lynette Morgan points out, the restriction methods used are just...

Don't Let 'em Fry! : Managing Excessive Heat Don't Let 'em Fry! : Managing Excessive Heat Don't Let 'em Fry! : Managing Excessive Heat Don't Let 'em Fry! : Managing Excessive Heat


Sweltering conditions, overbearing heat, extreme humidity or arid dry air—these are the difficult outdoor climate challenges that many...

Strands of Gold: Growing Saffron Strands of Gold: Growing Saffron Strands of Gold: Growing Saffron Strands of Gold: Growing Saffron


Saffron is not difficult to grow indoors and saffron bulbs are readily obtainable at the right time of year for those who want to grow some...

Slow & Steady: Slow Sand Filtration for Hydroponics Slow & Steady: Slow Sand Filtration for Hydroponics Slow & Steady: Slow Sand Filtration for Hydroponics Slow & Steady: Slow Sand Filtration for Hydroponics


Sometimes taking your time truly does produce better results, which is why microfiltration using sand is one of the best defenses against...

Furry Frustrations Furry Frustrations Furry Frustrations Furry Frustrations


In spite all our modern technology and information, hydroponic disease outbreaks still can get the better of us. So, here’s a primer on how...

Riding the Shortwave Riding the Shortwave Riding the Shortwave Riding the Shortwave


Light—we all know it’s what powers photosynthesis and growth; however, a plant’s response to different parts of the light spectrum is wide...

Troubleshooting in the Hydroponic Garden Troubleshooting in the Hydroponic Garden Troubleshooting in the Hydroponic Garden Troubleshooting in the Hydroponic Garden


Most common problems experienced in hydroponic gardens are caused by one of four main things: nutrition, the plant’s growing environment,...

Organic and Hydroponic Food Safety Organic and Hydroponic Food Safety Organic and Hydroponic Food Safety Organic and Hydroponic Food Safety


As many as 76 million people in the United States report coming in contact with some form of foodborne illness every year and of this,...

Pest ID and Control Pest ID and Control Pest ID and Control Pest ID and Control


When many of us dream of our ideal hydroponic garden, the thought of plagues and pestilence don’t usually spoil the idyllic image. So,...

Keeping Things Cool Through Evaporation Keeping Things Cool Through Evaporation Keeping Things Cool Through Evaporation Keeping Things Cool Through Evaporation


Venting in cool air is only one way to lower the temperature of a greenhouse or growroom. Here, Dr. Lynette Morgan shows us how to...

Eco Coco Eco Coco Eco Coco Eco Coco


While we all know coir is a by-product of the coconut processing industry, understanding its properties and potential as a horticultural...

Physiological Disorders of Indoor Gardens Physiological Disorders of Indoor Gardens Physiological Disorders of Indoor Gardens Physiological Disorders of Indoor Gardens


Indoor gardening offers to plants conditions that are fully under the gardener’s control. So, when physiological disorders strike, they can...

The Full Menu: Beneficial Elements for Plant Growth The Full Menu: Beneficial Elements for Plant Growth The Full Menu: Beneficial Elements for Plant Growth The Full Menu: Beneficial Elements for Plant Growth


Some of the beneficial elements for plants that have undergone considerable investigation by scientists are aluminum (Al), cobalt (Co),...

Water Worries: Water Quality Issues and How to Deal with Them Water Worries: Water Quality Issues and How to Deal with Them Water Worries: Water Quality Issues and How to Deal with Them Water Worries: Water Quality Issues and How to Deal with Them


If your water is not right your plants won’t reach their full potential—Dr. Lynette Morgan takes you through everything you need to know...

Build It Right: Determining Greenhouse Design by Climate Build It Right: Determining Greenhouse Design by Climate Build It Right: Determining Greenhouse Design by Climate Build It Right: Determining Greenhouse Design by Climate


Think a greenhouse is a greenhouse is a greenhouse? Think again! The design of your greenhouse should be tailored to your local climate in...

Is Organic Hydroponics Even Possible? Is Organic Hydroponics Even Possible? Is Organic Hydroponics Even Possible? Is Organic Hydroponics Even Possible?


When is an organically grown hydroponic tomato not organic? When it’s Canadian, apparently

Photosynthesis, Maximized. Photosynthesis, Maximized. Photosynthesis, Maximized. Photosynthesis, Maximized.


Dr. Morgan explains just how much light your indoor garden needs—and what colors it should be

Treat 'Em Bad and They'll Taste Better: Improving Flavor in Crops Treat 'Em Bad and They'll Taste Better: Improving Flavor in Crops Treat 'Em Bad and They'll Taste Better: Improving Flavor in Crops Treat 'Em Bad and They'll Taste Better: Improving Flavor in Crops


When it comes to good food, we are all looking for taste, aroma and texture. Sometimes these all come together to create a sensory delight,...

Q&A by Lynette Morgan


What types of nutrients do hydroponic melons require? What types of nutrients do hydroponic melons require? What types of nutrients do hydroponic melons require? What types of nutrients do hydroponic melons require?


Fruiting plants such as muskmelons being grown on this scale really do need to be provided with different vegetative and fruiting...

How much space is required for growing three tomato plants hydroponically? How much space is required for growing three tomato plants hydroponically? How much space is required for growing three tomato plants hydroponically? How much space is required for growing three tomato plants hydroponically?


It’s a good idea to start small with your first indoor garden and gradually increase in size as you gain experience. Three tomato plants...

How can I tell if the biofilm in my hydroponic system is beneficial? How can I tell if the biofilm in my hydroponic system is beneficial? How can I tell if the biofilm in my hydroponic system is beneficial? How can I tell if the biofilm in my hydroponic system is beneficial?


Biofilms usually contain a number of different microbial species, some of which may be pathogenic (but usually many which are also...

I have organic sources of N-P-K on hand already. How would I go about mixing them to the correct N-P-K ratios? I have organic sources of N-P-K on hand already. How would I go about mixing them to the correct N-P-K ratios? I have organic sources of N-P-K on hand already. How would I go about mixing them to the correct N-P-K ratios? I have organic sources of N-P-K on hand already. How would I go about mixing them to the correct N-P-K ratios?


Hello, Page. Thanks for the detailed information. Unfortunately, it’s not just a case of simply switching from normal hydroponic fertilizer...

Cucumber flavor more resembles water than cucumber. Any suggestions? Cucumber flavor more resembles water than cucumber. Any suggestions? Cucumber flavor more resembles water than cucumber. Any suggestions? Cucumber flavor more resembles water than cucumber. Any suggestions?


Hello Scott, Unlike tomato fruit, cucumbers don’t tend to develop a particularly strong flavor: however, they shouldn’t taste like water....

Any tips on using natural fertilizers with my fertigation system to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse? Any tips on using natural fertilizers with my fertigation system to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse? Any tips on using natural fertilizers with my fertigation system to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse? Any tips on using natural fertilizers with my fertigation system to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse?


Natural and organic fertilizers can be used in hydroponics. However, the process is highly technical and comes with a few challenges....


Ginger grows extremely well in hydroponics and there have been a number of research trials investigating the best methods of production as...


Unfortunately, there probably isn’t much available in the way of wasabi seed at certain times of the year, as when the plants would...


The best varieties for a small, hydroponic greenhouse in your climate would be hybrid types of tomato and cucumber plants, and...

What is the ideal nutrient ppm concentration for watermelons, and what special care is needed to grow square watermelons? What is the ideal nutrient ppm concentration for watermelons, and what special care is needed to grow square watermelons? What is the ideal nutrient ppm concentration for watermelons, and what special care is needed to grow square watermelons? What is the ideal nutrient ppm concentration for watermelons, and what special care is needed to grow square watermelons?


Watermelons grow extremely well in hydroponic systems. Provided conditions are warm enough, plants will produce large, sweet fruit. The...

What is the recommended color temperature for growing wasabi? What is the recommended color temperature for growing wasabi? What is the recommended color temperature for growing wasabi? What is the recommended color temperature for growing wasabi?


There are more than 20 varieties of wasabi known in its native habitat, Japan, where cultivars are often region specific. In the United...

What advice can you offer about making a hydroponic garden out of an old shipping container? What advice can you offer about making a hydroponic garden out of an old shipping container? What advice can you offer about making a hydroponic garden out of an old shipping container? What advice can you offer about making a hydroponic garden out of an old shipping container?


Shipping containers have been turned into highly successful hydroponic systems in many different climates and they can be a good choice for...

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